Pain is a global public health problem. Knowing what pain is and understanding how it works is of vital importance for any healthcare professional, among whom we find physiotherapists. Within pain, musculoskeletal pain, the one that physiotherapists mainly focus on, is one of the most prevalent, being the main cause of chronic pain. Currently, there is a wide variety of therapeutic approaches to alleviate symptoms associated with chronic pain. Interestingly, therapeutic exercise is considered the most effective treatment worldwide to address many of the symptoms linked to chronic musculoskeletal pain. Throughout this book, the student will deepen how to explore the main movement dysfunctions as well as learn about the most prominent active treatment techniques for neck pain, low back pain, shoulder pain and lower limb pain. The book begins by highlighting the importance of therapeutic exercise in low back pain, which is currently considered one of the most disabling conditions worldwide. During this chapter, the student will be able to get to know and learn several theoretical models related to motor control, as well as the role that our muscles play in both stabilisation and movement. Among other things, the student will learn to evaluate and treat two key muscles for exercise in low back pain: the transverse abdomen and the lumbar multifidi. During the second chapter, the student will increase his knowledge about the importance of applying exercise in the lower limb. In this chapter, the student will understand the two main profiles that a person with pain in the lower limb can present: internal rotator profile and external rotator profile. In addition, they will be able to learn the main threats associated with these profiles (example, valgus collapse), how to evaluate them and how to treat them through exercise. In the third chapter, the student will verify the importance of applying the right exercises to people with cervical pain. In this sense, this chapter is aimed to present the most frequent neuromuscular alterations in this region (eg, atrophy and delayed timing in deep cervical flexors). The student will learn each of these alterations, how to evaluate them and how to treat them using different types of exercises. In addition, the student will be able to observe key points in the treatment of patients with neck pain: postural disorders and the role that the scapula plays in it. Finally, the last chapter is aimed at deepening knowledge related to how the physical therapist can evaluate and treat different conditions and movement disorders associated with shoulder pain, such as shoulder pain associated with the subacromial region, unstable shoulder, injury to the labrum or related to rupture of the rotator cuff, exercise, musculoskeletal pain, chronic pain, physical therapy.